Following the violent conflict of 1998/1999 and the NATO intervention of March 1999, the United Nations Interim Administration Mission (UNMIK) in Kosovo was established, in June 1999. UNMIK has since governed Kosovo, while supporting peace-building activities, organising and overseeing the development of provisional institutions for democratic and autonomous self-government, as well as protecting and promoting human rights and supporting the reconstruction of key infrastructure.
On 17 February 2008 the Kosovo Assembly adopted a resolution which declared Kosovo to be an independent state. The EU Members States meeting in the Council took note of Kosovo's declaration of independence resolution and noted that they will decide, in accordance with national practice and international law, on their relations with Kosovo.
The EU fully supports Kosovo's progress within the Stabilisation and Association Process alongside the rest of the region. A permanent technical and political dialogue with the authorities has been established to provide sound policy advice and guidance to Kosovo's reform efforts. Under that mechanism, regular meetings are held to assess Kosovo's progress. In addition, sector meetings under the headings of good governance, economy, internal market, innovation and infrastructure are held, providing a platform for detailed analysis of the conformity of the legislation, practices and policies in Kosovo with European standards.
In order to further develop and strengthen an independent and multi-ethnic justice system and a multi-ethnic police and customs service, the EU offered support to Kosovo authorities through a Rule of Law Mission, EULEX. EULEX is mostly assisting the authorities with monitoring, mentoring and advising, while retaining certain executive responsibilities. It is currently functional throughout Kosovo in its three main operational areas: police, justice and customs.
Kosovo also receives EU financial assistance. It benefits from the Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA), macrofinancial assistance, the Instrument for Stability (IfS) and other sources of funding. A total of €508 million of EU assistance has been committed to Kosovo for the period 2008–2011.
In addition, a Donor's Conference for Kosovo was organised and hosted by the European Commission in 2008 where pledges were made for a total of over 1.2 billion euros.
* Under UNSCR 1244/1999